1. SITUATION OVERVIEW AND RATIONAL
Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa, with an estimated population of over 90 million. The country has the largest youth population in SSA. Children and young people (0 to 24-year) make up 65.6% of the total population’. Ethiopia has recorded one of the fastest growing economies (at an average of 10.5%) in the Sub-Saharan Africa in the last 10 years2. However, it ranks 174 of 188 countries on the 2015 Human Development Index implying a long way to go.
The Ethiopian education system follows 4-4-2-2 cycles of general education (1st and 2nd cycles of primary, 15t and 2nd cycles of secondary). Over the past 25 years, Ethiopia has performed relatively well in expanding formal and non-formal education opportunities, though ensuring the provision of quality education remains a challenge. Enrolment at all levels has improved substantially and youth and adult literacy rate increased from 27.1% per cent in 1994 to 58.5% in 20153. Primary school (grades 1-8) gross enrolment increased from 22% in 1994 to over hundred percent4 in 2015 in most of the regions. Secondary school education increased from 9% in 1984 to 25.6%5 in 2014/15.
Ethiopian education system is vulnerable to both natural disasters and human made related emergencies. A review of emergency responses implemented from 2010 to 2014 shows that the number of children affected by crisis averages 250,000 annually. In addition, Ethiopia has now the highest number of refugees in Africa. Out of the 737,979 total refugees in Ethiopia, 57% are children’, putting even more pressure on the Ethiopian education system.
In late 2015, the country experienced the worst drought in 50 years. The two main rainy seasons that supply over 80 per cent of Ethiopia’s agricultural yield were not successful in 2015. Rain fall delayed, insufficient and erratic in nature and resulted in failure of major crop production, also greatly affected livestock population. The drought has been followed by floods starting from May 2016 affecting education and other sectors particularly in six regions: Amhara, Tigray, Afar, Ethiopia Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR. According to caseload methodology calculation that was based on data from Education Management Information System (EMIS) of the ministry, the number of children and teachers affected by the crisis increased from 2.1 million in December 2015 to 4 million in June 2016. However, this number is decreased to about 3 million according to Meher Assessment that was conducted between Nov and Dec 2016.
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