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solac
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የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ

Unread postby solac » 29 Jun 2010 06:25

አቶ ማድያት በቅርቡ በገርል_ፍሬንዴ አፍንጫ እና ፊት ላይ የጥፋት ጦርነት በመክፈት"የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ" የሚለውን የቆየ የአያቶቻችን አባባል "የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ዳሌ እና ባቷ" ወደሚለው ለመቀየር ያላሰለሰ ጥረት በማድረግ ላይ ይገኛል::እናም ይህንን ጥቃት ባጭሩ ለመቅጨት ከእኔ እና ከባለቤት በተጨማሪ የሳይበር ወታደሮችም ቢሳተፉ ጥሩ ውጤት ሊመጣ ይችላል የሚል ግምት ስላለን የሚከተሉትን ጥያቄዎች አቅርበናል::1) ምን አይነት ዘመናዊ መዳሃኒት ሊያጠፋው ይችላል? 2) ማድያት በእንግሊዘኛ ምን ይባላል?

ኦሽንoc
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Re: የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ

Unread postby ኦሽንoc » 20 Jul 2010 16:29

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]ሰላም Solac ማድያት መቼም ምን ያህል የቆንጆ እህቶቻችንን እናቶቻችንን አንዳንዴም የወንዶችን ፊት እንዳበላሸ ሁላችንም በየቀኑ የምናየው ነገር ነው::
ይህንን ጥያቄያችንን ይዤ በህክምና ዙሪያ ላይ የሚወያዩ ወገኖቻችን ያሉበት ግሩፕ አቅርቤ በጣም አጥጋቢ መልስ አግኝቻለሁ::
ከሁሉ በማስቀደምም መልሱን ለሰጡኝን ግለሰቦች ምስጋና ይድረሳቸው:: እግዜሩም አብዝቶ ይስጥልን::
ማድያት ( Madiyat , Madyat , ) በእግሊዝኛው Melasma የሚባለው ቃል እና ምልክቱ ከሁሉ የበለጠ ይገልጹታል::
ከዚህ በታች የተሰጠውን መልስ በቀጥታ ገልብጬ አምጥቼዋለሁ::
( ማሳሰቢያ : ማንኛውንም አይነት መድሃኒት ከመጠቀም በፊት ቢቻል ባለሙያ ማማከር በጣም ጠቃሚ ነው::)

Melasma, also known as chloasma, appears as a blotchy, brownish pigmentation on the face that develops slowly and fades with time. The pigmentation is due to overproduction of melanin by the pigment cells, melanocytes.
Melasma / chloasma[table][tr][td]Image[/td][td]Image[/td][td]Image[/td][/tr][/table]
More images of melasma...[/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]What causes melasma?[/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]There is a genetic predisposition to melasma. Triggers include:[/font]
    [font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]
  • Pregnancy – the pigment often fades a few months after delivery.
  • Hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptive pills and injected progesterone
  • Sun exposure
  • Scented or deodorant soaps, toiletries and cosmetics – a phototoxic reaction[/font]
  • [font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Unknown factors, when it arises in apparently healthy, normal, non-pregnant women[/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Clinical features[/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Melasma usually affects women; only one in twenty affected individuals are male. It generally starts between the age of 30 and 40. It is more common in people that tan well or have naturally dark skin compared with those who have fair skin.[/font][font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Melasma affects the forehead, cheeks and upper lips resulting in macules (freckle-like spots) and larger patches. Occasionally it spreads to involve the sides of the neck, and a similar condition may affect the shoulders and upper arms. Melasma is sometimes separated into epidermal (skin surface), dermal (deeper) and mixed types.
Type of melasmaClinical features[table][tr][/tr][tr][td]Epidermal[/td][td]
  • Well-defined border
  • Dark brown colour
  • Appears more obvious under black light
  • Responds well to treatment
[/td][/tr][tr][td]Dermal[/td][td]
  • Ill-defined border
  • Light brown colour
  • Unchanged under black light
  • Responds poorly to treatment
[/td][/tr][tr][td]Mixed[/td][td]
  • Combination of light and brown patches
  • Partial improvement with treatment
[/td][/tr][/table][/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Treatment[/font]

[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Melasma can be very slow to respond to treatment, so patience is necessary. Start gently, especially if you have sensitive skin. Harsh treatments may result in an irritant contact dermatitis, and this can result in postinflammatory pigmentation.
Generally a combination of the following measures is helpful.[/font]
    [font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]
  • Discontinuing hormonal contraception.
  • Year-round sun protection. Use a broad-spectrum very high protection factor sunscreenof reflectant type and apply it to the whole face. Alternatively, use a make-up containing sunscreen.
  • Use of a mild cleanser, and if the skin is dry, a light moisturiser. This may not be suitable for those with acne.
  • Preventing new pigment formation. Bleaching creams inhibit the formation of melanin by the melanocytes. They include:
    • Hydroquinone2-4%, for 2 to 4 months. This sometimes causes stinging and redness.
    • Azelaic acidcan be used longterm, and is safe even in pregnancy. It may sting.
    • Kojic acid
    Sometimes a topical corticosteroidsuch as hydrocortisone is prescribed, which works quickly to fade the colour and has an additional benefit of reducing the likelihood of a contact dermatitis caused by other agents.
  • Peeling off the pigment. Try:
  • Destroying the pigment with pigment laser or intense pulsed lightdevice – this is possibly the best treatment for a quick result but several treatments may be necessary.[/font]
  • [font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Applying cosmetic camouflage(make-up).[/font]
[font=Verdana,Tahoma,Arial,sans-serif]Results take time and the above measures are rarely completely successful. About 30% of patients can achieve complete clearance with a prescription agent that contains a combination of hydroquinone, tretinoin and a topical corticosteroid.
Unfortunately, even in those that get a good result from treatment, pigmentation may reappear on exposure to summer sun and/or because of hormonal factors.
[highlight=#eeeeee]

Related information

References:

  • Gupta AK, Gover MD, Nouri K, Taylor S. The treatment of melasma: A review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:1048-65. Medline.

DermNet NZ:

Other websites:

  • Melasma– emedicine dermatology, the online textbook
  • Melasma – British Association of Dermatologists

Books:


See the DermNet NZ bookstore
[/highlight]
DermNet does not provide an on-line consultation service.
If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice.[/font]

[font=Times New Roman, Times, Serif][color=#330099][font=Times New Roman]

[color=#4f6128]"Courage is the hyphen between who we are today, and who we will become tomorrow."


[font=lucida grande,tahoma,verdana,arial,sans-serif] Elsi G. Abebe

[/font]
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ኦሽንoc
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Re: የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ

Unread postby ኦሽንoc » 20 Jul 2010 17:05

ሌላው መልስ ያገኘሁት ስለዚሁ ስለ ማድያት ( Melasma ) በዝርዝር የሚያወራ ድህረ ገጽ ማጣቀሻ ነው::
ዋናው ገጽ ማጣቀሻ - http://www.medicinenet.com/melasma/article.htm#

ከዚሁ ድህረ ገጽ ጠቃሚ ያልኩዋቸውን ገጾች ወደዚህ አምጥቻቸዋለሁ::

Please visit the website for more detailed Information

Image

What is melasma? What are signs of melasma?


Melasma is a very common patchy brown, tan, or blue-gray facial skin discoloration, almost entirely seen in women in the reproductive years. It typically appears on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women 20-50 years of age. Although possible, it is uncommon in males. It is thought to be primarily related to external sun exposure, external hormones like birth control pills, and internal hormonal changes as seen in pregnancy. Most people with melasma have a history of daily or intermittent sun exposure. Melasma is most common among pregnant women, especially those of Latin and Asian descents. People with olive or darker skin, like Hispanic, Asian, and Middle Eastern individuals, have higher incidences of melasma.
An estimated 6 million women are living in the U.S. with melasma and 45-50 million women worldwide live with melasma; over 90% of all cases are women. Prevention is primarily aimed at facial sun protection and sun avoidance. Treatment requires regular sunscreen application and fading creams.

What causes melasma?


The exact cause of melasma remains unknown. Experts believe that the dark patches in melasma could be triggered by several factors, including pregnancy, birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT and progesterone), family history of melasma, race, antiseizure medications, and other medications that make the skin more prone to pigmentation after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Uncontrolled sunlight exposure is considered the leading cause of melasma, especially in individuals with a genetic predisposition to this condition. Clinical studies have shown that individuals typically develop melasma in the summer months, when the sun is most intense. In the winter, the hyperpigmentation in melasma tends to be less visible or lighter.
When melasma occurs during pregnancy, it is also called chloasma, or "the mask of pregnancy." Pregnant women experience increased estrogen, progesterone, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) levels during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, it is thought that pregnancy-related melasma is caused by the presence of increased levels of progesterone and not due to estrogen and MSH. Studies have shown that postmenopausal women who receive progesterone hormone replacement therapy are more likely to develop melasma. Postmenopausal women receiving estrogen alone seem less likely to develop melasma.
In addition, products or treatments that irritate the skin may cause an increase in melanin production and accelerate melasma symptoms.
People with a genetic predisposition or known family history of melasma are at an increased risk of developing melasma. Important prevention methods for these individuals include sun avoidance and application of extra sunblock to avoid stimulating pigment production. These individuals may also consider discussing their concerns with their doctor and avoiding birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) if possible.

Where is melasma seen on the body?


Melasma is characterized by discoloration or hyperpigmentation primarily on the face. Three types of common facial patterns have been identified in melasma, including centrofacial (center of the face), malar (cheekbones), and mandibular (jawbone).
The centrofacial pattern is the most prevalent form of melasma and includes the forehead, cheeks, upper lip, nose, and chin. The malar pattern includes the upper cheeks. The mandibular pattern is specific to the jaw.
The upper sides of the neck may less commonly be involved in melasma. Rarely, melasma may occur on other body parts like the forearms. One study confirmed the occurrence of melasma on the forearms of people being given progesterone. This was a unique pattern seen in a Native American study.

What are the types of melasma?


Four types of pigmentation patterns are diagnosed in melasma: epidermal, dermal, mixed, and an unnamed type found in dark-complexioned individuals. The epidermal type is identified by the presence of excess melanin in the superficial layers of skin. Dermal melasma is distinguished by the presence of melanophages (cells that ingest melanin) through out the dermis. The mixed type includes both the epidermal and dermal type. In the fourth type, excess melanocytes are present in the skin of dark-skinned individuals.


How is melasma diagnosed?


Melasma is usually readily diagnosed by the typical appearance of brown skin patches on the face. Dermatologists are physicians who specialize in skin disorders and often diagnose melasma by visually examining the skin. A black light or Wood's light (340-400 nm) can assist in diagnosing melasma. In most cases, mixed melasma is diagnosed, which means the discoloration is due to pigment in the dermis and epidermis. Rarely, a skin biopsy may be necessary to help exclude other causes of this local skin hyperpigmentation.

What is the treatment for melasma?


The most common melasma therapies include 2% hydroquinone (HQ) creams like the over-the-counter products Esoterica and Porcelana and prescription 4% creams like Obagi Clear, Glyquin, Tri-Luma, and Solaquin. Products with HQ concentrations above 2% generally require a prescription. Clinical studies show that creams containing 2% HQ can be very effective in lightening the skin and less irritating than higher concentrations of HQ for melasma. These creams are usually applied to the brown patches twice a day. Sunscreen should be applied over the hydroquinone cream every morning. There are treatments for all types of melasma, but the epidermal type responds better to treatment than the others because the pigment is closer to the skin surface.
Melasma may clear spontaneously without treatment. Other times, it may clear with sunscreen usage and sun avoidance. For some people, the discoloration with melasma may disappear following pregnancy or if birth control pills and hormone therapy are discontinued.
In order to treat melasma, combination or specially formulated creams with hydroquinone, a phenolic hypopigmenting agent, azelaic acid, and retinoic acid (tretinoin), nonphenolic bleaching agents, and/or kojic acid may be prescribed. For severe cases of melasma, creams with a higher concentration of HQ or combining HQ with other ingredients such as tretinoin, corticosteroids, or glycolic acid may be effective in lightening the skin.
  • Azelaic acid 15%-20% (Azelex, Finacea)
  • Retinoic acid 0.025%-0.1% (tretinoin)
  • Tazarotene 0.5%-0.1% (Tazorac cream or gel)
  • Adapalene 0.1%-0.3% (Differin gel)
  • Kojic acid
  • Lactic acid lotions 12% (Lac-Hydrin or Am-Lactin)
  • Glycolic acid 10%-20% creams (Citrix cream, NeoStrata)
  • Glycolic acid peels 10%-70%

Possible side effects of melasma treatments include temporary skin irritation. People who use HQ treatment in very high concentrations for prolonged periods (usually several months to years) are at risk of developing a side effect called ochronosis. Hydroquinone-induced ochronosis is a permanent skin discoloration that is thought to result from use of hydroquinone concentrations above 4%. Although ochronosis is fairly uncommon in the U.S., it is more common in areas like Africa where hydroquinone concentrations upward of 10%-20% may be used to treat skin discoloration like melasma. Regardless of the potential side effects, HQ remains the most widely used and successful fading cream for treating melasma worldwide. Regular medical follow-up appointments with a doctor are important for people using HQ treatment for melasma. HQ should be discontinued at the first signs of ochronosis.


source : http://www.medicinenet.com/melasma/article.htm#

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munaye
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Re: የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ

Unread postby munaye » 08 Jan 2011 11:15

Thank you for this information. a lot of habesha people specially woman have this madiat problem.

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Re: የሴት ልጅ ውበቷ ፊቷ

Unread postby ethiopiaforumsGeek » 07 Jan 2014 06:50

I'd underline "[font=Verdana, Tahoma, Arial, sans-serif][highlight=#eff2f5]Sun exposure", even though it's healthy but exaggerating would cause serious problems[/highlight][/font]


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